Under the volcanoes, the melted crust cooled in huge volumes as new granite batholiths. Basin-range faulting has elevated the batholiths to fourteen thousand feet, and weather has sketched them out as the Sierra Nevada.
When seafloor goes into a trench, there can be a certain untidiness as segments are shaved off the top. They end up sitting on the other plate, large hunks of ocean crust that formed as much as a few thousand miles away and are now emplaced strangely among the flexplek huren eindhoven formations of the continent. The California Coast Ranges-the hills of Vallejo, the hills of San Simeon, the hills of San Francisco -are a kind of berm that was pushed up out of the water by the incoming plate, including large slices of the seafloor and a jumble of oceanic and continental materials known to geologists as the Franciscan melange. Geologists used to earn doctorates piecing together the stratigraphy of the Franciscan melange, finding bedding planes in rock masses strewn here and there, and connecting them with dotted lines. Plate tectonics reveals that there is no stratigraphy in the melange, no consecutive story of deposition-just mountains of bulldozed hash. The eastward motion of the ocean plate stopped soon after basin-range faulting began. The plate started moving in another direction. The trench, ceasing to be a trench then, was replaced by the San Andreas Fault. Mountain building, in the Old Geology, had been seen as a series of orogenies rhythmically spaced through time, in part resulting from isostatic adjustments, and in part the work of “earth forces” that were not extensively explained. As flexplek huren haarlem mountains were disassembled, their materials were deposited in huge troughs, depressions, downbendings of the crust that were known as geosynclines. Earth forces made the geosynclines. As sediment accumulated in them, its weight pressed ever farther down into the mantle until the mantle would take no more, and then there came a trampoline effect, an isostatic bounce, that caused the material to rise.