Omgeving en organisatie

Afbeeldingsresultaat voor

De eerste golf onstaat aan het einde van de vorige eeuw, na een langdurige depressieperiode. Deze periode kenmerkt zich evenals de huidige concentratiegolf door technologische vernieuwing. Uitgedrukt in het BNP-percentage is de omvang van deze eerste golf groter dan die van de huidige (vijfde) fusie-en overnamegolf. Bekende voortbrengsels van de eerste concentratiegolf zijn Genera! Electric in de VS, CSM in Nederland en AEG in Duitsland.
1918-1930 In de jaren na de Eerste Wereldoorlog ontstaat een fusie-en overnamegolf die wordt gevoed door optimistische verwachtingen. Een kortstondige dip in het aantal fusies en overnames vindt plaats tijdens de scherpe recessie van 19201922. In de tweede helft van flexplek utrecht de jaren twintig leeft de concentratiebeweging ech
ter weer op. Grote Europese concerns die ontstaan in de jaren 1918-1930, zijn Bayer, Daimler-Benz en Unilever.
1958-1977 Amerikaanse ondernemingen worden steeds actiever in Europa. Een gemeenschappelijke Europese markt is in opbouw. In zestig tot tachtig procent van de gevallen in de VS staan de fusies en overnames in het teken van diversificatie; in Nederland, Groot-Brittannië en Frankrijk varieert dit percentage van twintig tot veertig.
1982-1991 Voorafgaand aan de vierde concentratiegolf is er sprake van stagnatie, met een geringe groei van de wereldhandel, hoge inflatie, faillissementen van grote bedrijven en een slinkend vertrouwen in de economie. Deze golf begint omstreeks 1980 in de VS en omstreeks 1982/1983 in Europa. Uit deze periode dateren ondernemingen als ABN/AMRO en Novartis.
1992-nu We bevinden ons naar het zich laat aanzien in de vijfde concentratiegolf. Mondialisering van de handel en IT-gedreven vernieuwingen, versterkt door de beurshausse, zijn de drijvende krachten van de huidige golf. Het aantal fusies en overnames, alsmede de omvang ervan, bereikt tophoogten.
Er kunnen verschillende motieven zijn om strategische allianties6 op te bouwen. In figuur 3.1 worden ze in een algemeen kader geplaatst.
Van verdedigen is sprake wanneer het resultaat van de samenwerking ligt op het beschermen van de kernactiviteit van de marktleider, om in de toekomst haar concurrentiepositie veilig te stellen. Hier is dus sprake van een defensieve strategie. Voorbeeld: IBM die met grote klanten specifieke software ontwikkelt.

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