Individuele organismen

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Tegenwoordig worden niet alleen individuele organismen als gegevenswerkende systemen gezien, maar ook hele samenlevingsverbanden, zoals bijenkorven, bacteriekolonies, bossen en steden. Economen benaderen de economie ook steeds meer als een dataverwerkend systeem. Leken geloven dat de economie bestaat uit boeren die tarwe verbouwen, arbeiders die kleding vervaardigen en klanten die brood en onderbroeken kopen. Maar deskundigen zien de economie als een mechanisme dat gegevens verzamelt over onze wensen en vermogens en al die data omzet in beslissingen. In dit zakelijke energie wereldbeeld zijn het marktkapitalisme en het staatscommunisme geen concurrerende ideologieën, ethische geloofsovertuigingen of politieke instituten. In essentie zijn het concurrerende gegevensverwerkende systemen. Het kapitalisme verwerkt data via een gespreide methode, het communisme doet het gecentraliseerd. Het kapitalisme verwerkt data door alle producenten en consumenten rechtstreeks met elkaar in contact te brengen, zodat ze vrijelijk informatie kunnen uitwisselen en onafhankelijk van elkaar beslissingen kunnen nemen. Hoe bepaal je de prijs van een brood op de vrije markt? Simpel zat. Elke bakkerij mag zoveel brood produceren als ze wil en daar zoveel voor vragen als ze wil. Evenzo staat het de klanten vrij om zoveel brood te kopen als ze maar kunnen betalen, of om bij de concurrent te gaan kopen. Het is niet illegaal om duizend euro voor een stokbrood te vragen, het is alleen erg onwaarschijnlijk dat iemand dat er ooit voor zal betalen. Op veel grotere schaal kunnen investeerders die vermoeden dat de vraag naar brood zal stijgen aandelen gaan kopen in biotechbedrijven die genetisch gemodificeerde tarwesoorten ontwikkelen die beter groeien. Door deze influx van kapitaal zullen die firma’s hun onderzoek kunnen versnellen, waardoor ze sneller meer tarwe kunnen leveren, waarmee ze een eventuele broodschaarste voor kunnen zijn. Zelfs als één biotechgigant het verkeerd aanpakt en vastloopt, zullen succesvollere concurrenten waarschijnlijk alsnog voor de verhoopte doorbraak zorgen. Het marktkapitalisme verdeelt al het werk op het gebied van data-analyse en besluitvorming dus tussen tal van onafhankelijke, maar zakelijke energie vergelijken onderling verbonden processoren. Zoals de Oostenrijkse economiegoeroe Friedrich Hayek het zei: ‘In een systeem waarin kennis van relevante feiten is verdeeld over heel veel mensen, kunnen de prijzen de afzonderlijke handelingen van verschillende mensen coördineren.

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