Shooting star. Almost everyone who describes hot spots is tempted to reverse reality and go for illusion at the expense of fact -that is, to narrate the apparent travels of hot spots as if they were in motion leaving trails like shooting stars, instead of telling the actual story of slow crustal drift over the fixed positions of thermal plumes. Myself included. With words, it is much easier to move a hot spot than it is to move a continent. Here, for example, is the story of another of the world’s hot spots told in terms of its illusory motion. With the flood basalts of Serra Geral, in southern Brazil, a hot spot is said to have begun in late Jurassic time. It moved east under Brazil for several million years and then crossed over to zakelijke energie Africa, which at that time was not much separated from South America. It lifted mountains in Angola, and then, doubling back, headed southwest under the ocean to form the Walvis Ridge, a line of seamounts leading to the hot spot’s present position-Tristan da Cunha. From the Serra Geral to the present island, the Tristan da Cunha hot-spot track is so well defined and dated that, as Morgan says, “it really ties down Africa.” Not to mention South America. An automatic inference from the theory is that hot spots perforating the same plates at the same times must make parallel tracks. On the floor of the Pacific, the tracks of the Line Islands, the Tuamotu Archipelago, the zakelijke energie vergelijken Marshalls, and the Gilberts parallel the track of Hawaii and the Emperor Seamounts. In the Atlantic, the Canary Islands have traced a curve parallel to Madeira’s. Both are hot spots, and have left tracks that conform to Great Meteor. The Cape Verde Islands are a hot spot. A hundred and seventy million years ago, it was under New Hampshire, on a track nearly coincident with the later track of Great Meteor. The most voluminous intrusions of granite in the White Mountains are dated around a hundred and seventy million years.
From lookoffs in and around Jackson Hole, the view to the north concluded with a high and essentially level tree-covered terrain that seemed to be advancing from the direction of Yellowstone, as indeed it had done, spreading southward, concealing the earlier topography, filling every creek bed, pond, and gulch. When he first rode in that terrain, he saw with no surprise that the rock was rhyolite, which has the same chemistry as granite but not its crystalline texture, because rhyolite cools quickly as a result of coming out upon the surface of the earth. This rhyolite, in a fiery cloud rolling down from Yellowstone, had buried the north end of the Teton Range, where it split and flowed along both sides. From zakelijke energie vergelijken one end to the other of the valley were outcrops that from a distance looked like snow. Close up, they were white limestone, white shale, and white ash. After noting strikes and dips, and compiling the data, he calculated the thickness of the deposit as approximating six thousand feet. Top to bottom, it was full of freshwater clams and snails, and some beavers, aquatic mice, and other creatures that live in shallows. So the valley had been filled with a lake. The lake was always shallow. Yet its accumulated sediments were more than a mile thick. There was no rational explanationunless the floor of the valley was steadily sinking throughout the life of the lake. Volcanic rocks around the valley were white, brown, red, purple, and numerous hues of yellow and green. Quartzite bouldersstream-rounded, and scattered far and wide-had come from a source far to the northwest, in Idaho, and could not have been transported by ice. In the Mt. Leidy Highlands and along the eastern edge of Jackson Hole he saw other zakelijke energie boulders, larger than human heads. Like the quartzites, they asked questions that, for the time being, he could not answer. He found black and gray sediments of the Cretaceous seas.
It was into this situation that John David Love was born-a family that had lost almost everything but itself, yet was not about to lose that. Slowly, his father assembled more modest cavvies and herds, beginning with the capture of wild horses in flat-out all-day rides, maneuvering them in ever tighter circles until they were be. guiled into entering the wild-horse corral or-a few miles awaythe natural cul-de-sac (a small box canyon) known to the family as the Corral Draw. Watching one day from the granary roof, the boys-four and five-in one moment saw their father on horseback crossing the terrain like the shadow of a cloud and in the next saw his body smash the ground. The horse had stepped in a badger hole. The rider-limp and full of greasewood punctures, covered with blood and grit-was unconscious and appeared to be dead. He zakelijke energie vergelijken was carried into the house. After some hours, he began to stir, and
through his pain mumbled, “That damned horse. That damned horse-I never did trust him.” It was the only time in their lives that his sons would hear him swear. There were periods of drought, and more floods, and long, killing winters, but John Love never sold out. He contracted and survived Rocky Mountain spotted fever. One year, after he shipped cattle to Omaha he got back a bill for twenty-seven dollars, the amount by which the cost of shipment exceeded the sale price of the cattle. One spring, after a winter that killed many sheep, the boys and their father plucked good wool off the bloated and stinking corpses, sold the wool, and deposited tl1e money in a bank in Shoshoni, where the words “STRENGTH,” “SAFETY,” and “SECURITY” made an arc above the door. The bank failed, and they lost the money. Of many bad winters, the worst began in i919. Both David and his father nearly died of Spanish influenza, and were slow to recuperate, spending months in bed. There were no ranch hands. At the point when the patients seemed most in danger, his mother in her desperation decided to try to have them moved to a hospital (a hundred miles away), and prepared to ride for zakelijke energie help. She had the Robson’s choice of a large, rebellious horse. She stood on a bench and tried to harness him. He kicked the bench from under her, and stepped on her feet. She gave up her plan.
Their crowns looked like umbrellas that had been turned inside out and were streaming off the trunks downwind. “Wind erosion has tremendous significance in this part of the Rocky Mountain region,” Love said. “Even down in Laramie, the trees are tilted. Old-timers used to say that a Wyoming wind gauge was an anvil on a length of chain. When the land was surveyed, the surveyors couldn’t keep their tripods steady. They had to work by night or near sunrise. People went insane because of the wind.” His mother, in her i905 journal, said that Old Hanley, passing by the Twin Creek school, would disrupt lessons by zakelijke energie making some excuse to step inside and light his pipe. She also described a man who was evidently losing to the wind his struggle to build a cabin:
He was putting up a ridgepole when the wind was blowing. He looked up and saw the chipmunks blowing over his head. By and by, along came some sheep, dead. At last one was flying over who was not quite gone. He turned around and said, “Baa” -and then he was in Montana.
Erosion, giving the landscape its appearance, is said to be the work of water, ice, and wind; but ‘vind is, almost everywhere, a minimal or negligible factor, with exceptional exceptions like Wyoming. Looking back across the interstate-north up the crest of the range-among ponderosas, aspens, and limber pines we could see the granites of Vedauwoo Glen, which had weathered out in large blocks, as granite does, along intersecting planes of weakness, while wind-borne grit had rounded off the comers of the blocks. Where some had tumbled and become freestanding, grit flying close above the ground had abraded them so rigorously that the subsummit surface was, in that place, a flat of giant mushrooms. The cliffs behind them also looked organic-high piles of rounded blocks, topped in many places by narrowly balanced boulders that were zakelijke energie vergelijken undercut almost to the point of falling. Love, contemplative, appeared to be puzzling out some deep question in geomorphology. At length, he said, “When wild horses defecate, they back up to a place where other wild horses have defecated, and so on, until they build turd towers, like those, in the air. Domestic horses do not do this.”
The first summer, she had six colts! She must have had calves, too, by the way the Ehlers’ cattle increased.” These remarks were dated October 22, i905-the day after her stagecoach arrived. In months that followed, she sketched her neighbors (the word applied over many tens of miles). “By the door was Mrs. Frink, about i8, with Frink junior, a large husky baby. Ida Franklin, Mrs. Frink’s sister and almost her double, was beside her, frivolous even in her silence.” There was the story of Dirty Bill Collins, who had died as a result of taking a bath. And she fondly recorded Mrs. Mills’ description of the libertine Guy Signor: “He has a cabbage heart with a leaf for every girl.” She noted tl1at the nearest barber had learned his trade shearing sheep, and a blacksmith doubled as dentist. Old Pelon, a French Canadian, impressed her, because he had refused to ask for money from the government after Indians killed his brother. “Him better dead,” said Old Pelon. Old Pelon was fond of the masculine objective pronoun. Miss Waxham wrote, “Pelon used to have a wife, whom he spoke of always as ‘him.'” Miss Waxham herself became a character in this tableau. People sometimes called her zakelijke energie vergelijken the White-Haired Kid. “There’s many a person I should be glad to meet,” read an early entiy in her journal. She wanted to meet Indian Dick, who had been raised by Indians and had no idea who he was-probably the orphan of emigrants the Indians killed. She wanted to meet “the woman called Sour Dough; Three Fingered Bill, or Suffering Jim; Sam Omera, Reub Roe ….” (Reub Roe held up wagons and stagecoaches looking for members of the Royal Family.) Meanwhile, there was one flockmaster and itinerant cowboy who seemed more than pleased to meet her. In the first reference to him in her journal she calls him “Mr. Love-Johnny Love.” His place was sixty miles away, and he had a good many sheep and cattle to look after, but somehow he managed to be right there when the new young schoolmarm arrived. In the days, weeks, and months that followed, he showed a pronounced tendency to reappear. He came, generally, in the dead of night, unexpected. Quietly he slipped into the corral, fed and zakelijke energie watered his horse, slept in the bunkhouse, and was there at the table for breakfast in the morning-this dark-haired, blue-eyed, handsome man with a woolly Midlothian accent.
The thermal output of the earth melts a thin film of water on the glacier bottom, and the ice slides on that, too. Thrust sheets made of rock also slide on water. The lower part of a glacier is plastic, the upper part brittle-like the earth’s moving plates and the plastic mantle beneath them. Where the brittle glacier surface bends, it cracks into crevasses, into fracture zones, as does the brittle ocean crust (the Clarion Fracture Zone, the Mendocino Fracture Zone). Such fractures are everywhere in the rock of continents, too. In fact, the ridged-and-valleyed surface of almost any flowing glacier is remarkably similar to the kantoor huren per uur eindhoven sinuous topography of the deformed Appalachian mountains. The continental ice sheet moves toward the equator and keeps on going until it cannot stand the heat. At the latitude of New York City, generally speaking, the ice melts as fast as it advances, and thus it goes no farther, and leaves on Staten Island its terminal moraine. Ocean temperatures will have dropped because of the cold, and therefore the oceans are providing less snow to feed the ice. On all fronts, the ice retreats-not necessarily to disappear. The climate warms. The oceans warm. The snow pack thickens in the Great North Woods. A glacier spreads again. Once the pattern is set, the rhythm is relatively steady. For us, the ice is due again in ninety thousand kantoor huren per uur haarlem years.
We ran on through Ohio on the bed of the great former lake, Kelleys Island far behind us. Where there had been sand spits reaching into the water, with sandy hooks at their tips, there were farm buildings standing on the dry spits-the high prime ground, a few feet higher than the surrounding fields. Now, at spring plowing time, these things were visible as they would not be for a year again.
When the final great pulse of mountain building folded eastern Pennsylvania, the deep burial and tectonic crush may have done wonders for the coal seams there, but all the oil in the country rock was burned black and destroyed. Conodonts were blackened, too. As Anita’s many samplings would prove, conodonts become lighter in color and hue in a westward trend across the state-from black to cordovan to dusky orange to brightening levels of yellow. Running west of Du Bois and Clarion now, and less than fifty miles from Ohio, we were out of the browns and well into the gold. If the quality of coal improves co-working space eindhoven eastward, the theoretical quality of petroleum goes the other way. We took a iight off the interstate. Soon we were cruising on Petroleum Street, in downtown Oil City. We continued north. In the fifteen miles between Oil City and Titusville lay the N apa Valley of early American oil. It was a V-shaped, intimate valley, five hundred feet from rim to river, and along its floor were oil refineries so small they were almost cute. They did not suggest the starry lighted skeletal cities of Exxon’s Baton Rouge Refinery or Sunoco’s Marcus Hook. They suggested Christian Brothers, the Beringer Wine1y, the Beaulieu Vineyard. One refine1y followed another. Wolf’s Head, Pennzoil. They stood beside Oil Creek, which was so named in the eighteenth century because petroleum dripped out of its banks and into the water. Indians had found it, three centuries before, to judge by the age of trees that were growing in pits they had dug to collect the oil in pools. The Senecas rubbed their skins with it. They may have used it for light and heat. The use of petroleum is old in the world. Workmen laid asphalt three thousand years co-working space haarlem before Jesus Christ. The first energy crisis involving petroleum was in i875 B.C. The first oil spills were natural, and were not so large that they could not be cleaned up by bacteria that feed on oil. In i853, in California, a lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers reported that “the channel between Santa Barbara and the islands is sometimes covered with a film of mineral oil, giving to the surface the beautiful prismatic hues that are produced when oil is poured on water.”
They had travelled, to be sure-but they had more likely come from Asbury Park than from Stockholm. In the thrusting and telescoping of the strata, the transition rocks of the American continent’s eastern slope had been deeply buried. In them, almost surely, would be a mixture of cool-water and warm-water conodont types. To the east of the Toiyabe Range, there had been less telescoping, and the full sequence was traceable-from the cool deep continental edge up the slope to the warm far-reaching platform. “The change had nothing to do with moving plates,” Anita concluded. “Nothing to do with plate tectonics. I blew it. It was an environmental change, an environmental sequence.” More recently, working in Alaska, she had seen the sequence again, this time in tightly banded concentration, for the “American” conodonts were from co-working space den haag reefs around Ordovician volcanic islands with steeply plunging sides and the “Scandinavian” conodonts were from cold deeps nearby. Swerving to avoid a pothole, Anita said, “The plate-tectonics boys look at faunal lists and they go hysterical moving continents around. It’s not the paleontologists doing it. It’s mostly the geologists, misusing the paleontology. Think what geologists would make of the present east coast of the United States if they did not understand oceanography and the resulting distribution of modem biota . . Put yourself forty or fifty million years from now trying to reconstruct the east coast of the United States by looking at the remains in the rock. God help you, you would probably have Maine connected to Labrador, and Cape Hatteras to southern Florida. You’d have a piece of Great Britain there, too, because you see the same fauna. Well, did you ever hear of ocean currents? Did you ever hear of the Gulf Stream? The Labrador Curre;it? The Gulf Stream brings fauna north. The Labrador co-working space tilburg Current brings fauna south. I think that a lot of the faunal anomalies you see in the ancient record, and which are explained by invoking plate tectonics, can be explained by ocean currents bringing fauna into places they shouldn’t be. In the early days of plate tectonics, a lot of us, including me, jumped on the bandwagon in order to explain the distribution anomalies we were seeing not only in the eastern Appalachians but in North America as a whole. When we better understood the paleoecologic controls on the animals some of us were working on, there was no reason to invoke plate tectonics.”
The rock was now Pennsylvanian-massive river sandstones of Pennsylvanian time. Flat, deck-like, it was comparatively undisturbed. It had been shed, to be sure, from eastern mountains, but had not been much affected by their compressive drive. Crazed streams had disassembled the plateau, leaving half-eaten wedding cakes, failed pyramids, oddly polygonal hair-covered hills. Pittsburgh was built upon such geometries, its streets and roads faithful to the schizophrenic streams, its hills separating its people into socio-racial ethno-religious piles-up this one the snobs, up that the Jews, up this the co-working space eindhoven tired, up that the poor. A hundred miles northeast of Pittsburgh in the Hurrying snow there were numerous roadcuts now, and in them were upward-fining sequences of sandstones, siltstones, shales-Allegheny black shales -underlying more levels of sandstone, siltstone, and shale. “If you were a prospector for coal, you’d go bananas when you saw these black shales,” Anita said. “There ought to be coal in these roadcuts.
This is Pennsylvania in the Pennsylvanian-the home office of the rock.” Pennsylvania in the Pennsylvanian was jungle-a few degrees from the equator, like southern Indonesia and Guadalcanal. The freshwater swamp forests stood beside the nervously changing coastline of a saltwater bay, just as Sumatran swamps now stand beside the Straits of Malacca, and Bornean everglades beside the Java Sea. This was when glacial cycles elsewhere in the world were causing sea level to oscillate with geologic rapidity, and the swamps pursued the shoreline as the sea went down, and marine limestone buried the swamps as co-working space haarlem the sea returned. In just one of these cycles, the shoreline would move as much as five hundred miles-the sea transgressing and regressing through most of Pennsylvania and Ohio.
They happened to be within a third of a mile of warm-water American conodonts in rock of about the same age which had moved hardly at all. The Scandinavian conodonts had apparently come to Pennsylvania with the closing of the protoAtlantic ocean and been dropped ashore off the leading edge of the arriving plate. “Even I said, ‘Oh, this piece peeled off the oncoming European-African plate and got dumped in here along with the elastics,'” Anita said, telling the story. “Everybody cited those papers. To this day they are called ‘marvellous, landmark papers.’ I could eat my heart out. The papers have been used as prime backup proofs of plate-tectonic applications in the northern Appalachians. Even now, a lot of the people who use the plate-tectonic model for interpreting the Appalachians are completely unaware that those papers were based on a paleontological misinterpretation.” Working in Nevada three years later, Anita had found Scandinavian-style conodonts of middle Ordovician age. Her husband, Leonard Harris, savored the discovery not for its conference room eindhoven embarrassment to his wife, needless to say, but for its air-brake effect on the theory of plate tectonics. “Now, how could that be?” he would ask. “How did this happen? Europe can’t hit you in Nevada.” From the Toiyabe Range she had taken the cool-water fossils, and moving east to other mountains-from basin to range-she had come to middle Ordovician carbonates that contained a mixture of conodonts of both the cool-water and the warm-water varieties, the American and the Scandinavian styles. Fartl1er east, in limestone of the same age in Utah, she had found only warm-water conodonts. She realized now the absoluteness of her error. Utah had been pretty conference room haarlem much the western extremity of the vast Bahama-like carbonate platform that covered North America under shallow Ordovician seas. In western Utah, the continental shelf had begun to angle down toward the floor of the Pacific, and in central Nevada the continent had ended in deep cool water.